Date De L Invention De La Télévision

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television (TV), the electronic delivery de moving images and sound from a source to a receiver. By extending auto senses of vision et hearing beyond thé limits ns physical distance, tv has had a considerable conséquences sur on society. Conceived in thé early 20th century as a faisabilité medium for education et interpersonal communication, cette became de mid-century a colorful broadcast medium, utilizing the model of broadcast radiophonique to bring news and entertainment à people toutes les personnes over auto world. Tv is now yielded in a variety du ways: “over auto air” passant par terrestrial radiophonique waves (traditional broadcast TV); follow me coaxial cables (cable TV); reflect off du satellites organized in geostationary terre orbit (direct transfer satellite, jaune DBS, TV); streamed through thé Internet; et recorded optically on numérique video discs (DVDs) and Blu-ray discs.

The technical standards à la modern television, both monochrome (black-and-white) and colour, were sapin established in auto middle ns the 20th century. Improvements oui been made continuously since that time, et television technology changed substantially in auto early 21st century. Much type was focused conditions météorologiques increasing the picture resolution (high-definition television ) et on transforming the dimensions of thé television recipient to seul wide-screen pictures. In addition, the transmission of digitally encoded television signals to be instituted à provide interactif service et to broadcast multiple programs in the channel an are previously occupied de one program.

Despite this continuous technical evolution, contemporary television is le meilleur understood first de learning thé history and principles ns monochrome television and then de extending the learning to colour. Auto emphasis du this article, therefore, is on tons principles et major developments—basic expertise that is needed venir understand and appreciate future technological developments and enhancements.

A. Michael Noll

The development de television systems

Mechanical systems

The dream of see distant mise is oui old oui the person imagination. Clergymans in old Greece studied the entrails of birds, trying venir see in them what auto birds had seen as soon as they flew over thé horizon. They believed that their gods, sitting in comfort conditions météorologiques Mount Olympus, were gifted with thé ability à watch human being activity toutes les personnes over the world. And the opening scene of William Shakespeare’s phat Henry IV, part 1 introduces the character Rumour, ns whom the différent characters rely parce que le news du what is happening in the far corners de England.

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For ages ce remained a dream, et then tv came along, start with année accidental discovery. In 1872, while investigate materials for use in thé transatlantic cable, English telegraph worker Joseph pouvez realized the a selenium wire was differing in its électricité conductivity. Further investigation showed the the change occurred as soon as a beam du sunlight fell nous the wire, which passant par chance had actually been placed nous a table near thé window. Although its sens was no realized at the time, this happenstance provided the basis pour changing light into année electric signal.

In 1880 a french engineer, Maurice LeBlanc, published an article in the journaux La léger électrique the formed auto basis of all subsequent television. LeBlanc suggest a scanning mechanism that would take advantage ns the retina’s temporary cible finite retainment de a intuitif image. He envisaged a photoelectric cabinet that would look upon seul one morceaux at a time of the picture à be sent . Beginning at auto upper left corner de the picture, the cell would proceed to auto right-hand side et then jump earlier to thé left-hand side, only one line lower. Cette would continue in this way, transmitting informations on how much light was watched at every portion, until the entire photo was scanned, in a manner similar to thé eye reading a page du text. A receiver would be synchronized with auto transmitter, reconstructing auto original la peinture line de line.

The concept of scanning, i m sorry established thé possibility de using seul a single wire jaune channel for dévolution of année entire image, became and remains venir this day thé basis of tous television. LeBlanc, however, was never able venir construct a functioning machine. Nor was the homme who take it television à the prochain stage: paul Nipkow, a German engineer who invented the scanning disk. Nipkow’s 1884 patent for an Elektrisches Telescop to be based on a facile rotating disc perforated with an inward-spiraling sequence of holes. Ce would be placed soja that it blocked reflected light from thé subject. As the disk rotated, thé outermost feet would relocate across auto scene, letting through light native the life “line” of the picture. The suivant hole would à faire the same thing contempt lower, et so on. Une complete revolution du the disc would administer a complete picture, jaune “scan,” de the subject.

This idée was ultimately used de John Logie Baird in angleterre (see the photograph) and Charles Francis Jenkins in thé United States venir build thé world’s sapin successful televisions. The question du priority depends on one’s definition of television. In 1922 Jenkins ressentir a calmer picture by radio waves, marqué the first true tv success, the transmission of a live human face, was achieved passant par Baird in 1925. (The indigenous television itself had actually been coined de a Frenchman, Constantin Perskyi, at the 1900 paris Exhibition.)


John Logie Baird standing prochain to his tv transmitter ns 1925–26. To Baird"s left in the boîte is “Stookie Bill,” a ventriloquist"s dummy the was scanned par the rotate Nipkow disk in order to produce a snapshot signal.

The dattaquer of Jenkins et Baird were usually greeted through ridicule or apathy. As far back ont 1880 année article in the anglais journal Nature had actually speculated that television was possible marqué not worthwhile: thé cost du building a système would no be repaid, for there was no way to make money out ns it. A later article in Scientific American assumed there could be some uses à la television, marqué entertainment was no one du them. Most toutes les personnes thought the concept was lunacy.

Nevertheless, the work walk on and began à produce results et competitors. In 1927 the American Telephone et Telegraph entreprise (AT&T) gave a auditeur demonstration du the new technology, et by 1928 the general Electric société (GE) had begun regular tv broadcasts. Collecter used a system designed par Ernst F.W. Alexanderson that available “the amateur, detailed with together receivers as he may design or acquire, an opportunity à pick up the signals,” which to be generally ns smoke rising from a chimney or other such interesting subjects. The same année Jenkins began to sell tv kits par mail and established his very own television station, mirroring cartoon pantomime programs. In 1929 Baird convinced the frère Broadcasting corporation (BBC) venir allow him to produce half-hour spectacles at midnight three times a week. Auto following years witnessed the sapin “television boom,” through thousands de viewers buying or constructing primitive sets venir watch primitive programs.

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Not anyone was entranced. C.P. Scott, editor de the Manchester Guardian, warned: “Television? thé word is half Greek et half Latin. Non good will come du it.” an ext important, the lure de a nouveau technology shortly paled. Thé pictures, formed du only 30 lines repeating roughly 12 times tout de suite second, flickered badly nous dim recipient screens seul a few inches high. Programs to be simple, repetitive, and ultimately boring. Nevertheless, even while the boom collapsed a competing advancement was taking place in the realm ns the electron.