Louis 14 En Costume De Sacre

Posted de Juyeon métal | critical updated Mar 16, 2018 | published on jan 15, 2018 | 1700-1709, 18th century, artwork analysis


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In Hyacinthe Rigaud’s most renowned portrait, louis XIV spectacles the majestic power of an absolute monarch. He is attract his coronation habiller embroidered through the royal fleur de lys in addition to some an essential elements of Baroque saint such ont the cravat, red heels, and the wig.

Vous lisez ce: Louis 14 en costume de sacre


Hyacinthe Rigaud (Fig. 1) to be one du the most renowned french Baroque painters during auto reign of Louis XIV. In his earlier works, he was strongly influenced by Anthony van Dyck, as de lart historian Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy notes. Tessa mouton has pointed out that the portrait ns Louis xiv (1701) recalls fourgon Dyck’s Charles ns Dismounted (Fig. 2) in that is composition. However, follow to Klingsöhr-Leroy, after he was admettre to the Académie Royale, Hyacinthe Rigaud arisen the français style ns the state portrait, jaune the portrait d’apparat, ont seen in his portrait ns the sculptor martin Desjardins (Fig. 3). Oui a effective portrait painter who well understood auto Ancien Régime, hey was commissioned venir paint numerous royal figures (Klingsöhr-Leroy, Grove); figures 4 et 5 are différent examples de his royaliste portraits.

In the portrait ns Louis XIV, Rigaud’s meilleur known portrait, the géant column, rich draperies and majestic posture are classic formulae representing auto power et ideal d’image of a ruler, oui Klingsöhr-Leroy emphasizes. Cible at thé same time, thé portrait is natural, realistic et life-like; Rigaud makes toutes les personnes the products palpable, et light et shade reveal thé textures ns the fabrics. Klingsöhr-Leroy additionally notes that, v this good portrait, Rigaud earned a reputation in Europe and his style became dominant ont the official royal portrait style in la france until auto late 18th century.

This portrait to be commissioned ont a gift for King philip V de Spain, thé grandson du Louis XIV. But it to be such a good success at court, a copy du the portrait was sent to Spain instead of the original. Et this original work became the official portrait of Louis xiv (Fleming). According venir Louvre, this painting was displayed at thé 1704 Salon et remained in royal collection until after the french Revolution when, in 1793, cette was handed over to thé Muséum central des art de les République, later on known oui the Musée du Louvre.


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Fig. 1 - Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743). Self-portrait, 1696. Oil nous canvas; 83 x 65.4 cm (32.7 cf 25.7 in). Source: Wikimedia


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Fig. 2 - Anthony van Dyck (Flemish, 1599-1641). Charles je at auto Hunt, ca. 1635. Oil conditions météorologiques canvas; 266 x 207 cm. Paris: Musée ns Louvre, 1775 inv. 1236. Source: Musée du Louvre



Fig. 3 - Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743). Martin van den Bogaert, dit Desjardins, 1683. Oil nous canvas; 139 x 104 cm (54.7 cf 40.9 in). Versailles: musée National du Château ns Versailles et aux Trianon. Source: Wikimedia



Fig. 4 - Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743). Dauphin de France; Duke of Burgundy, 1704. Oil nous canvas; 129 cf 98 cm (50.8 voir 38.6 in). Versailles: Salon du l"abondance du Château aux Versailles. Source: Wikimedia


Fig. 5 - Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743). Portrait ns Louis XIV ns France, 1701. Oil on canvas; 238 cf 149 centimètre (93.7 cf 58.7 in). Madrid: Museo cette Prado. Source: Prado


Hyacinthe Rigaud (French 1659- 1743). Louis XIV, 1701, oil nous canvas, 277 × 194 cm (109.1 × 76.4 in). Paris: Musée ns Louvre, inv. 7492. Source: Musée du Louvre


Louis xiv came onto auto throne in 1643 and then started to exercise absolute force based nous the concept of magnificent right, which means that he received his gouvernement directly native God, ont Fleming notes. Louis XIV, also known as Sun King, chapitre fashion oui the moyen of royaliste authority. De lart historian philip Mansel explains auto role of mode from Louis xiv to elizabeth II in his book Dressed to régner (2005):

“The appropriate dress was believed to encourager loyalty, meet vanity, impress external world, et help royalistes industries” (xiv).

Louis avaler took benefit of mode to auto fullest. Parce que le him, fashion was a way du expressing the extremely aesthetic an individual taste, an effective means of regulating the aristocracy with a de nombreux of sumptuary laws, a key instrument of occurring the denchères economy, et a signal that france was currently the centre of Europe. De the mid-seventeenth century, la france emerged ont the most powerful country in europe and, in herbal corollary, auto fashion capital was moved to parisien from Madrid. Hey executed mode reform against thé rigid et religious style ns the Spanish, ont Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell notes in sa essay “The king of Couture”:

“The fashions he introduced to be colorful, voluminous and ornamental, i m sorry were thé antithesis of the austere Spanish style. One ns the innovations was to mandate that new textiles showed up seasonally, double a year, and fashion too readjusted seasonally in France.”

In this context, thé Baroque style that louis needed à enchant the world and also to suppress his nobles came on the scene.

Fleming observes that in this portrait, every information is showing auto divine authority and the majesty ns Louis XIV. Especially thé embroidered coronation robe reinforces thé supremacy de the monarch. Auto black-and-white ermine fur et the blue-and-gold fleur-de-lys are symbols ns the français monarchy. The royalistes sword fastened to his hanches represents his military might, et the royal scepter and the crown confirm his royaliste authority.

However, Louis avaler is not following toutes les personnes the luxury details of those times. Ont Abigail Westover emphasizes, unlike the earlier period, where bodice, sleeves, skirts, jackets, et breeches were made to mix et match, clothing in this period was made ont separate et entire corresponding outfits, often fabriqué of exact same fabrics, which is called ‘en suite’. Auto coat jaune justaucorps, waistcoat, et breeches were a suiting ensemble. Often the justaucorps and waistcoat were greatly decorated v gold, silver or colored braid and embroidery (Fig. 9). Phyllis G. Tortora et Sara B. Marcketti explained thé breeches in this period in Survey of Historic blessure (2015):

“By 1680 thé breeches got an ext fitted et became knee-length, et at the end de the century were an extremely tight and fastened de buttons jaune a buckle at auto outside de the knee. Knee-length stockings were worn with those knee-breeches.” (153)

Instead ns wearing thé justaucorps and knee-length breeches, i beg your pardon were predominant in Baroque lâge (Fig. 9), Louis avaler is wearing the traditional blanche metallic doublet and thé trunk hose or short breeches. La honte 6, 7 et 8 respectively display Louis XV at the lâge of 5, louis XV at the âge of 20 and Charles X. This royal la honte are wearing almost thé same clothes with their coronation gowns regardless de the temps period. They space wearing blanche stockings, blanche metallic quick breeches revealing their leg lines, swollen lace sleeves and the cravat in common. Ce can it is in assumed that these were established as the douane for the royal portrait v a coronation gown in france from thé time of Louis XIV. Louis avaler may oui wanted venir present auto consistent image of unchangeable legitimacy or fixation authority, et his descendants were most likely eager venir appear favor him.


Fig. 6 - Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743). Louis XV (1710–1774) oui a Child, 1730. Oil nous canvas; 195.6 x 141 cm (77 voir 55 1/2 in). Nouveau York: thé Metropolitan musée of Art, 60.6. Purchase, mar Wetmore Shively Bequest, in storage of elle husband, Henry L. Shively, M.D., 1960. Source: auto Met


Fig. 7 - Hyacinthe Rigaud (French, 1659-1743). Louis XV, king of France, 1730. Oil nous canvas; 271 cf 194 centimètre (106.7 cf 76.4 in). Versailles: Palace ns Versailles. Source: Wikimedia


Fig. 8 - Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin (1783–1855 (French, 1783–1855). Portrait of the roi Charles cf of france in his coronation robes, 1827. Oil nous canvas. Source: Wikimedia


Fig. 9 - Jacob ferdinand Voet (Flemish, 1639-1689). Portrait of chef Luis de la Cerda, later on IX Duke of Medinaceli, ca. 1684. Oil conditions météorologiques canvas; 231 x 173 cm (90.9 voir 68.1 in). Madrid: Museo del Prado. Source: Wikimedia


Fig. 10 - Arist unknown. Portrait of Louis XIV, ca. 1670. Oil nous canvas; 196.5 cf 159 cm (77.4 cf 159 in). Versailles: Palace de Versailles, MV 8369. Source: Wikimedia


Nonetheless, thé portrait spectacles several an essential characteristics de Baroque saint in menswear, which peut faire seem effeminate by today’s standards. The first thing to be provided is auto great periwig. Indigenous 1670 till after the end du the century, thé full-bottomed periwig was prevailing. In auto 1670s, thé periwig was a herbal hair style, curled and flowing. By the end du the century, ce became an extremely large and was separated at auto high centre into deux peaks, i beg your pardon is called double peak (Brown 137). Doreen Yarwood defines this in European Costume: 4000 Years ns Fashion (1982):

“It to be then arranged with a centre parting and in a mass de curls et ringlets i beg your pardon rose à a peak nous each side ns the parting. These climate cascaded over thé shoulders et down the back almost to auto waist.” (158)

This good wig made hats and collars superfluous. Homme always brought a hat, normally under auto arm, cible rarely wore it. Some wigs were dusted with énergie to make them white, cible most were worn in natural colors (Tortora 154).

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Another crucial feature du Baroque age is auto red-heeled shoes, thé king’s signature. Hey is wearing the square-toed shoes with the rouge tongue, the rouge sole et the red heel. Thé tongue is turned back to démontrer the lining collar du red (Brown 136). Unlike in previously periods, thé size du the tongue seems more reasonable. These red heels became one du the most popular et predominant patterns in Europe. Mansel points out an interesting example regarding this in his book Dressed to régner (2005):

“Even William iii of Orange, one du the Louis’s most ennemi enemies wore red heels after Louis xiv attacked auto Dutch Republic.” (15)

The cravat is additionally a far-ranging factor de Baroque style. The relatively huge collar in thé earlier duration was changed with auto cravat, a separate necktie from the shirt. With the advent du the justaucorps, auto style de cravat became much more sophisticated. Cette was tied around thé throat in a bow and hung down in folds over auto chest. Thé neck cravat to be fringed jaune lace-trimmed (Yarwood 162). Thé Sun king is wearing a fragile lace cravat. The cravat with thé expensive lace to be reserved for formal use, et a long and plain linen cravat or steinkirk was worn more frequently parce que le both men et women (Brown 137). Below Louis XIV’s maigrir lace cravat unique matches with auto lace sleeve cuff gathered in at auto wrist, which is also une of main characteristics of Baroque costumes. Cette is interesting venir see thé doublet cuff turn back à reveal this lace sleeve cuff.

Figure 10 spectacles Louis xiv at the age of 23. The sacrés is not yet the typical baroque style since he still had attributes from previous duration such oui heavy use de ribbons at auto shoulder, the sash around thé waist et the ribbon embellishment nous the shoes. However, plenty of Baroque style elements are likewise found. Cette is attract the nouveau style ns knee-length coat or justaucorps, fitted breeches, square-toed shoes, auto lace cravat et the full-bottomed wig. In this regard, calling the a tendency setter is no hyperbole.


Fig. 11 - Artist unknown. Louis XIV and His Family, ca. 1710. Oil nous canvas; 127 x 160 cm (50 cf 63 in). London: Wallace collection. Source: Wikimedia


Fig. 12 - Simon Pietersz Verelst (Dutch, 1644-1721). Charles ii of England, ca. 1670-5. Oil nous canvas; 219.1 x 135.8 cm (86.3 x 53.5 in). London: royaliste Collection. Source: royalistes Collection


Fig. 13 - Godfrey Kneller (German, 1646-1723). George la deuxième année when Prince of Wales, 1716. Oil nous canvas; 239.2 cf 148.4 cm (94.2 cf 58.4 in). London: royal Collection. Source: royal Collection


Due à Nine Years’ war (1688-1697) et the War de Spanish séries (1701-1714), la france suffered a hefty blow venir the intérieur economy, accelerating auto decline of Louis XIV. Men’s garments ended up being plainer in this period et the speed de fashion change slowed et colors ended up being somber (Payne 349­). In illustration 11, Louis xiv is sitting on a chair attract a suit, i m sorry is composed ns a justaucorps, a waistcoat et breeches. Auto coat is fabriqué to button toutes les personnes the way down auto front, marqué it is fastened seul at thé waist line. That cuffs are huge. Auto waistcoat is seul a few inches much shorter than thé coat. A puff ns shirt sleeve and the wrist ruffle are encore exposed, and his red heels are toujours in vogue. However, thé color is foncé brown, not auto brilliant Baroque palette. And it is noteworthy that his cravat is simply tied without lot bulkiness et that there is not ont much embroidery on the coats oui in auto previous century.


After thé restoration du the monarchy in 1660, french high mode had a great impacter to England. Charles la deuxième année (Fig. 12), the new king, lugged to auto throne a taste parce que le French style. Hey later tried to establish année English style mode which is much much easier than that of la france (Yarwood 165).

Fig. 13 spectacle the English king George ii following français style du Louis avaler especially in hair and shoes also after Louis avaler died. Cible still he held a more simplified style ns less heavier embroidery et trims conditions météorologiques robe and coat in maintaining with the britanique taste pour simplicity.


Dolce & Gabbana seems really interested in Baroque style. In their ready-to-wear chercheur demploi in loss 2006 (Fig. 13) et Fall 2012 (Fig. 14), lock brought thé details ns Baroque menswear venir womenswear. Thé heavy gold on thé coat, thé cravat, the rows de small buttons recall the period de Louis XIV.

Another Italian designer also applied auto blue-and-gold fleur aux lys to the contemporary fashion. Aquilano Rimondi showed Louis XIV-inspired lieu de travail in ready-to-wear F/W 2012, et the chercheur demploi still looks full du glory and elegance (Fig. 15).

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Figure 16 is a pair de the well known red-soled pair of shoes of christian Louboutin. Auto red-soled pair of shoes begun passant par Louis avaler are encore alive and loved passant par modern mode people.