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Born:June 20, 1928 (age 93)France...(Show more)Founder:National Rally...(Show more)Political Affiliation:National Rally...

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(Show more)Notable household Members:daughter Marine le Pen...(Show more)

Jean-Marie ns Pen, (born célibataire 20, 1928, ns Trinité, France), french nationalist who founded and served as leader (1972–2011) of the national Front politics party, which stood for the main right-wing abondance to the country’s tendency conservative les pièces from the 1970s through thé early 21st century. A controversial la honte who typically was a presidential candidate, le Pen to be accused passant par his opponents de xenophobia and anti-Semitism.

Le Pen, auto son of a sailor, was frontière in a coastal ville in Brittany and attended a Jesuit boarding school in Vannes. In auto 1940s hey attended law school at the University ns Paris and in 1954 joined thé French étranger Legion, serving as a paratrooper in Algeria et in french Indochina. Upon his return to France, ns Pen ended up being a follower of publisher calcul Poujade, who was climate leading an anti-taxation protest movement, et in 1956 he was elected venir the denchères Assembly (parliament) oui its youngest deputy. Reelected to the denchères Assembly in 1958, hey was beat in 1962, after which he founded a society that marketed recordings de Nazi speeches et German army songs.

In 1972 le Pen created the national Front political party. From thé outset les Pen’s party stressed auto threat to la france posed by immigration—particularly du Arab immigrant from France’s former colonies in north Africa. The party also opposed europe integration, favoured the reintroduction of capital punishment, et sought prohibitions nous the building of additional employee in France. Ns Pen himself was constantly embroiled in political controversy; pour example, in thé 1960s he was given a two-month suspended retenue sentence and fined 10,000 francs for année “apology du war crimes”; hey was found guilty of violating France’s law prohibiting Holocaust denial parce que le comments fabriqué in thé 1980s describing the Holocaust as a mere “detail” in the history du World battle II; and in 1998 hey was convicted of assaulting a politics opponent et was banned native holding jaune seeking office pour two years.

Nevertheless, les Pen’s style and policies captured far-reaching support, specifically from thé working class, which experienced from climbing crime and high unemployment during the 1980s and ’90s. Cette ran number of times parce que le the presidency; though he captured much less than 1 percent in 1974, in 1988 et 1995 hey won some 15 percent. In 2002 ns Pen defeated compton Minister Lionel Jospin in the life round of the presidential election, to win 18 percent de the vote. However, through nearly the entire french political establishment—including auto Socialist Party and the français Communist Party—endorsing conservative president Jacques Chirac et with mass demonstrations against le Pen throughout thé country, he was easily defeated in the second round. In 2007 hey garnered slightly an ext than 10 percent of the voter in the first round, which was insufficient venir qualify him pour the runoff. 3 years later le Pen announced that cette would be retiring as National front leader, and in January 2011 hey was succeeded passant par his daughter Marine le Pen.

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From 1984 into the early 21st century, le Pen served as année elected member de the europe Parliament. In 2005 he strongly opposed the proposed constitution of the European Union, which french voters at some point rejected. In may 2009 auto European conference voted venir prevent les Pen indigenous presiding end its opened session, to be held after thé European choisir in June. It did so de overturning a régner that allowed the oldest member of the body—Le Pen—to resolve the new assembly. Marine ns Pen revitalized the denchères Front and positioned it as a viable au lieu de, remplacer to France’s two henn political parties, while thé elder ns Pen remained oui controversial ont ever. In peut faire 2014 he suggested auto Ebola virus ont a solution venir Europe’s immigration issues days avant being reelected to thé European Parliament ont part du the denchères Front’s best national electoral mirroring in thé party’s history. After repeating his insurance claim that thé Holocaust to be “a detail du history” et amid a high-profile row through Marine, he was suspended native the denchères Front in peut faire 2015. Les Pen filed a legal difficulty against the action, and in July 2015 a French court found in his favour, ruling that the party had actually not adhered à required protocols. In response, année extraordinary party congress was organized in respectable 2015, et Le stylo was formally expelled native the national Front. Cette retained his seat in thé European Parliament.